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Monday, September 17, 2012



Capable of multiple simultaneous engagements in complex scenarios, it provides 360° defense, in all weather and day/night conditions, against a wide variety of airborne platforms and munitions from short and medium ranges.

Technical Specifications
The Braak-8 missile system features a vertically launched active radar seeker missile with flexible dual pulse smokeless solid fuel motor that provides high maneuver capability at target interception range throughout the missile's wide envelope. 
The missile provides all-weather, day/night engagements in complex saturation scenarios. The interceptor is vertically launched from a mobile ground launcher.The missile's high agility is provided by a tungsten jet vane system for thrust vector control and a highly evolved electro-pneumatic control actuation system and a highly evolved electro-pneumatic control actuation system.The missile is believed to have a range of 70 / 80 km and a ceiling of 16 km.The missile launcher comprises an eight-round module, three or more of which could make up a typical system.The system is supported by the new EL/M-2258 Alpha Multi-Function Surveillance, Track & Guidance Radar (MF-STAR). The Active Electronic Steering Array (AESA) Radar System which includes single face rotating S-band Phased Array Antenna.It uses the same S-band transmit/receive modules as the four-face, static EL/M-2248 developed for the Barak 8 system, but is a single-face radar with both mechanical and electronic scanning in azimuth.It can deliver an accurate, high quality arena situation picture and discern low Radar Cross Section (RCS) targets even in the toughest environmental conditions (Heavy jamming and dense clutter) using pulse Doppler techniques, multiple beam forming and advanced high-PRF waveforms.According to Elta, MF-STAR is able initiate tracks against sea-skimming missiles at ranges in excess of 25 km, and out to more than 250 km for a high-flying combat aircraft. It provides mid-course guidance to the Barak-8 missile till its active homing takes over.The weapon system can engage 12 targets with 24 missiles.


Akash (Sanskrit: ???? Akas "Sky") is India's medium range surface-to-air missile defense system developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Bharat Electronics Limited(BEL) as part of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. The missile can target aircraft up to 30 km away, at altitudes up to 18,000 m. Akash can be fired from both tracked and wheeled platforms. Akash is said to be capable of both conventional and nuclear warheads, with a reported payload of 60 kg. A nuclear warhead could potentially give the missile the capability to destroy both aircraft and warheads from ballistic missiles. The missile battery is described as being able to track and attack several targets simultaneously.

An Akash battery comprises four 3D phased array radars and four launchers with three missiles each, all of which are interlinked. Each radar is able to track 16 targets simultaneously and control a launcher with 3 missiles. Hence it is reported to be able to detect 100 and track 64 targets and simultaneously attack any 8 of those targets at one time. The Akash system is comparable to the Patriot system, but unlike the Patriot, Akash is fully mobile and capable of protecting a moving convoy of vehicles. Like the Patriot, the Akash is really an air defence SAM which has been tested in a ballistic missile role. The system provides air defence missile coverage of 2,000 km².

Missile Characteristics
The 720kg, 5.78-metre long missile has a diameter of 35 cm and a length of 5.78 meters. With a top speed of Mach 2.5, the missile can engage targets as far as 25 km away flying at heights ranging from 20m to 18kms.The all weather missile features a digitally-coded command guidance system and has a 60kg warhead."The fully-automated Akash has an 88% kill probability within a specified kill zone... It has even intercepted a target with a 0.02 sq metre of radar cross-section (a fighter has a 2 sqm RCS)," a DRDO official told TOI in March 2011. According to DRDO, the missile is capable of engaging cruise missiles.
Akash is supported by multi-target and multi-function phased array fire control radar called 'Rajendra' that has a range of about 60 km.The Akash missile system is mobile, with the missile launcher, radar and command center all mounted on T-72 chassis.The mobile command centre selects up to four of the most threatening air targets, and two Akash missiles are fired at each from the T-72 based Akash launchers, which move alongside. The Rajendra radar continuously guides the missiles, eventually “flying” them smack into the enemy fighters.The Akash missile offers better maneuverability than typical surface-to-air missiles because it does not have a coast phase; it's boosted through out its flight envelope. According to DRDO, no other missile in the world offers this feature.

Akash Missile System: Configuration and Components

The Akash Missile System comprises a Group Control Center (GCC), an early warning Rohini 3D Central Acquisition Radar (CAR), and 2-4 Missile Batteries deployed around within 25km from the GCC.

Akash Mark-2
India wants to build a version of Akash for use on ships, and is already looking into a longer range (60 kilometers) version. 

A 2010 year end GOI press release referred to a Mark-2 version of the missile
Press Information Bureau English Releases


Point defense missile system
The Maitri missile project is a next-generation Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air Missile (QRSAM) with a lethal hundred per cent kill probability. It is a short-range (15km,9.3mi) surface-to-air point defense missile system. It should not be confused with the similar Indian Army Low-Level Quick Reaction Missile system (LLQRM) requirement. The missile will fill the gap created by the Indian government's decision to wind up development of the Trishul point defense missile system. It is believed to be a blend of the French Mica and DRDO Trishul. Maitri will build on the work done by DRDO while developing the Trishul missile, using technology transfer from MBDA to fill the technological gaps that led to the failure of the Trishul project.
MBDA principal contribution will be in providing be the active homing-head, thrust vector control, terminal guidance system and composites for a modified propulsion system for the missile, while the software, command-and-control system, the launchers and system integration work would be carried out by the DRDL.
MBDA have agreed to transfer all “sensitive” technology such as the seeker and thrust vector control system to India allowing India to manufacture the Maitri missile locally as well as support them.[4]
Two variants of the missile are planned :
A ship-borne point and tactical air defense version for the Navy
A mobile wheeled and tracked system for use by the Air Force and Army
The Electronics & Radar Development Establishment (LRDE), Bangalore, would develop two indigenous radars for the Maitri project. These would be new-generation variants of Central Acquisition Radar (3D-CAR), with the ability to track 150 targets simultaneously at a distance of 200 kilometers. The naval variant would be called the Revati and the air force version would be called Rohini.
Development of the missile is expected to be completed within three years of the project go-ahead, when initial testing will commence. Over 1000 missiles are expected to be produced for the Indian Army, Air Force and Navy.


The SPYDER (Surface-to-air PYthon and DERby) is an anti-aircraft missile system developed by the Israeli company Rafael Advanced Defense Systems, which is fitted atop a Czech Tatra truck. It implements surface-to-air versions of the Python-5 and Derby missiles of the same company.

SPYDER is a quick reaction medium range missile system that can engage aircraft, helicopters, unmanned air vehicles, drones and precision-guided munitions. It provides air defence for fixed assets and for point and area mobile forces in combat areas.

The SPYDER-SR system has 360° engagement ability and missiles can be launched from the full-readiness state in less than five seconds after target confirmation. The kill range is up to 20 miles and at altitudes from a minimum of 50 ft to a maximum of 120,000 ft. The system can perform multi-target simultaneous engagement and single, multiple and ripple firing, by day and night, in all weathers.

The command and control unit is developed by Israel Aerospace Industries. It is housed in a truck-mounted shelter with a mounted Elta EL/M-2106 ATAR radar, identification friend or foe (IFF) interrogator and communication equipment. The VHF/UHF communication system is for internal squadron communication and to upper tier command. The Elta EL/M-2106 ATAR 3D surveillance radar can track up to 500 targets simultaneously. The radar has 360° operation and all-weather day and night ability. The radar includes advanced electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) to operate in dense hostile electronic warfare environments.

Engages and destroys a wide spectrum of hostile targets
Maximum intercept range is over 35 km and an altitude of 16 km
Protects a large area
Quick response
Flexible deployment and operation
High lethality
High reliability
Simple and continuous operation
Interoperability with SPYDER-SR or other ADS


The Indian Ballistic Missile Defense Program is an initiative to develop and deploy a multi-layered ballistic missile defense system to protect India from ballistic missile attacks.
Introduced in light of the ballistic missile threat from Pakistan, it is a double-tiered system consisting of two interceptor missiles, namely the Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) missile for high altitude interception, and the Advanced Air Defence (AAD) Missile for lower altitude interception. The two-tiered shield should be able to intercept any incoming missile launched 5,000 kilometers away

Phase 1 System Overview
The system will be based on radar technology for tracking and fire control which the DRDO developed jointly with Israel and France respectively.

It will be implemented as a two tiered terminal phase interceptor system comprising of 

1. Prithvi Air Defense (PAD) exo-atmospheric interceptor missile for intercepting targets outside the atmosphere. 
2. Advanced Air Defense (AAD) endo-atmospheric interceptor missile for intercepting targets up to an attitude of 30 kms . 
3. 'Swordfish' Long Range Tracking Radar (LRTR). The Swordfish LRTR has been developed jointly by LRDE, Bengaluru and ELTA of Israel. It is based on the Israeli Green Pine early warning and fire control radar imported by India from Israel in 2001-2002.
4. Guidance radar that tracks the incoming missile in its terminal phase and guides the interceptor missile onto the target. The DRDO developed the guidance radar in collaboration with French company, Thales.

The integrated exo and endo-atmospheric systems offer a hit-to-kill probability of 99.8 per cent.

Phase 2 System
Phase 2 Interceptor Missiles
The Phase 2 missile defense system will be based on the AD-1 and AD-2 interceptor missile that are currently under development.
These interceptors would be capable of shooting down missiles that have ranges greater than 5,000 km, which follow a distinctly different trajectory than a missile with a range of 2,000 km or less. During their final phase, ICBMs hurtle towards their targets at speeds twice those of intermediate range missiles.The Phase 2 system will match the capability of the THAAD or Terminal High Altitude Area Defence missiles deployed by the United States as part of its missile shield beginning this year. THAAD missiles can intercept ballistic missiles over 200 km away and track targets at ranges in excess of 1,000 km.
Phase 2 Radar
Unlike the Phase 1 Swordfish radar developed by India in partnership with Israel, the radar to support Phase 2 interception will have 80% indigenous component, DRDO chief VK Saraswat told the press on May 15, 2011.

The Laser and Science Technology Centre (LASTEC) is also reported to be developing lasers to takeout enemy missiles during their boost phase, when they are most vulnerable."It's easier to kill a missile in boost phase as it has not gained much speed and is easier to target. It cannot deploy any countermeasures and it is vulnerable at that time," DRDO's Air Defense Program Director V K Saraswat told PTI in January 2009.
"In LASTEC, we are developing many of these technologies. We have to package these technologies on aircraft like the Americans have done on their systems," he added."It is an involved process and not just about producing lasers. We have to put in many systems like the surveillance and tracking systems together for such a system to work. It will take another 10-15 years before we talk of integrating all these elements," he said.A Boost Phase Missile defense system will need to rely on a space based launch detection system like the SBIRS satellite constellation being deployed by the US. Unlike the SBIRS, which is global in scope, India would require a more limited system to monitor Pakistan and China. India could also buy into the US SBIRS while developing its own limited constellation.

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ISRO is developing a satellite kill vehicle as part of its BMD system, according to DRDO Defense Research and Development Organization Director General V.K. Saraswat.

The hit-to-kill vehicle will use an imaging infra-red seeker and a 3-D laser image of a target satellite in low earth orbit to guide itself to impact.

No tests of the system have been scheduled so far.

"We are working to ensure space security and protect our satellites. At the same time we are also working on how to deny the enemy access to our space assets," Saraswat told newsmen at the Science Congress on January 4. 

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